Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a combination of PPTP and Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F), a technology developed by Cisco Systems, Inc. Rather than having two incompatible tunneling protocols competing in the marketplace and causing customer confusion, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) mandated that the two technologies be combined into a single tunneling protocol that represents the best features of PPTP and L2F. L2TP is described in RFC 2661 in the IETF RFC Database.
Though TorGuard’s support site offers in-depth information, finding specific info is harder, and the site is not as easy to follow as those for our top pick or ExpressVPN. TorGuard provides helpful video tutorials, but they’re two years old now and don’t show the latest versions of the company’s apps. As with most of the VPNs we contacted, TorGuard support staff responded to our help ticket quickly—the response to our query came less than half an hour after we submitted it on a weekday afternoon. Still, if you’re worried about getting lost in VPN settings or don’t like hunting for your own answers, IVPN is a better fit.
IPVanish can be run on any computer and mobile devices. It is capable of simultaneously using different types of connections. Paying with Bitcoin gives users additional security features as cryptocurrency cannot be tracked unlike government currency. This is because information required when paying with bitcoin are but an email address and a password.
What a VPN does do is make it much harder for an attacker to simply hoover up your information along with hundreds or thousands of others. That alone can help protect you from many of the large attacks and mass surveillance that have defined the last few years. Digital security, after all, is often really about economics. Spies and attackers would much rather go after the low-hanging fruit than try to crack or circumvent a VPN connection. Just remember that using security tools isn't an excuse for not also using a healthy dash of common sense.
Of course, there are more than just phones and computers in a home. Game systems, tablets, and smart home devices such as light bulbs and fridges all need to connect to the internet. Many of these things can't run VPN software on their own, nor can they be configured to connect to a VPN through their individual settings. In these cases, you may be better off configuring your router to connect with the VPN of your choice. By adding VPN protection to your router, you secure the traffic of every gadget connected to that router. And the router—and everything protected by it—uses just one of your licenses. Nearly all of the companies we have reviewed offer software for most consumer routers and even routers with preinstalled VPN software, making it even easier to add this level of protection.

Among last year's VPN apps for Android, Private Internet Access had the least impact on downloads, reducing speeds by just 10.3 percent. However, Private Internet Access had an enormous impact on latency. If that's your primary concern, TorGuard is your best bet. That service only increased latency by 12.5 percent. In our upload test, Private Internet Access fared well but TorGuard less so.
VPN servers work by routing traffic through a series of external servers before they reach the server, and a traffic flow from one server to another is called a “hop.” To maximize the connection speed, you want the least hops possible. If you do not have a specific reason to connect through another country, your best course of action should connect to the server closest to your current location. For many, it means choosing your country home (and closest to the city,) if you are in a country with multiple VPN servers available. For others, i.e. selecting the country closest to your own.
Windscribe's network performance was once about average in our tests, but a recent switch in VPN protocols put it on par with Private Internet Access in head-to-head tests. Windscribe is compatible with many platforms (including routers and Amazon Fire and Kodi TV set-top boxes), offers a wide variety of connection options, has a wide geographic reach with hundreds of servers, and presents an appealing, if minimal, user interface.

These folks have been around since 2010, and don't log anything. They provide a generous five connections, a connection kill switch feature, and some good online documentation and security guidance. Our one disappointment is that their refund policy is 7-days instead of 30, but you can certainly get a feel for their excellent performance in the space of a week.


In conjunction with information security experts at The New York Times (parent company of Wirecutter), we reached out to our finalists with questions about their internal security practices. We asked how they handled internal security access, how they communicated securely with customers, in what ways they collected reports on security bugs, and of course whether their statements on logging policies matched their marketing and privacy policies. We also considered which companies had public-facing leadership or ownership, and which ones openly supported projects and organizations that promoted Internet security and privacy. (For a full breakdown of trust and VPNs, check out the section above.)
Reassurance that your personal IP address is hidden, and your confidential data is kept safe. Many people  don’t realize that using the internet gives websites and businesses information that can be traced back to their IP address which can then be sold for marketing purposes. It’s not only irritating, it’s invasive and extreme. This can also create an entryway for hackers. Our free VPN servers prevent companies and hackers from getting to you and your IP address remains hidden.
Add to that the volume of add-ons offered by TorGuard, especially access to a 10Gbit network and static IP addresses which aren't likely to be blocked, and it's a very competitive service. It also has greatly expanded its collection of servers and because it is so focused on serving BitTorrent, it's clear that the company cares about how fast data moves through its network.
How to overcome? Choose one of the best gaming VPN and boost your gaming skills in two ways; route your web traffic through uncongested pathways to allow data packets to flow freely and connect to a closest VPN server and shorten the distance between you and the gaming server. Choose none-other than ExpressVPN and connect to its fastest server near you and reduced ping time.
What a VPN does do is make it much harder for an attacker to simply hoover up your information along with hundreds or thousands of others. That alone can help protect you from many of the large attacks and mass surveillance that have defined the last few years. Digital security, after all, is often really about economics. Spies and attackers would much rather go after the low-hanging fruit than try to crack or circumvent a VPN connection. Just remember that using security tools isn't an excuse for not also using a healthy dash of common sense.

The IVPN app’s default settings are great for most people, who should be happy just smashing the Connect button and not fiddling with settings. The desktop app defaults to a secure OpenVPN connection with AES 256-bit encryption (what we consider the standard at this point), and the mobile app can (and should) be toggled to OpenVPN as well. Our budget pick, TorGuard, defaults to the weaker (but also acceptable) AES 128-bit encryption unless you manually change it, and hasn’t added OpenVPN support on its iOS app.
The best VPN services offer a robust balance of functions, server location, connectivity protocols, and price. Some are great for occasional use, others are geared towards surrounding location constraints that companies place on their apps and services, and others are focused on people who download a lot of content and want some privacy while they do.
The free version is only available on Chrome and is bandwidth-restricted. It’s not as useful if you watch a lot of Netflix or you’re thinking about cutting the cord Considering Canceling Cable? The True Cost of Cutting the Cord Considering Canceling Cable? The True Cost of Cutting the Cord When you add everything up, do you really save money by cutting the cord? We do the math involved with cancelling cable in favor of Internet services. Read More .
It’s not suitable for users who want to unlock geo-restricted content as well as improving their privacy. The free version only offers U.S.-based servers, and access to services like Netflix Which VPNs Still Work With Netflix? Which VPNs Still Work With Netflix? Netflix is trying to stop people accessing its service through VPNs, but a handful of VPNs are managing to stay one step ahead of the streaming giant. Read on to find out which ones... Read More , Hulu, and BBC iPlayer are only available to premium users.
Despite some of the drawbacks, ZorroVPN is a very interesting service if you are looking for advanced online anonymity. With their OpenVPN file config generator, you can create unique VPN chains with the Tor network and proxies (up to four hops). Unlike with Perfect Privacy, however, these multi-hop configurations cannot be dynamically changed within the VPN client.
Our Findings: During the test we found HMA delivering a pretty decent volume of speed. However, we noticed a bit of throttling and interruptions in the connection. Overall, the fast VPN test was fine, and we didn’t experience much downstream. We discovered that due to highly encrypted protocols tied up with HideMyAss network, its connection is slow compare to ExpressVPN and IPVanish.
If you’re seriously concerned about government surveillance—we explain above why that should be most people’s last consideration when choosing a VPN—some expert sites like privacytools.io recommend avoiding services with a corporate presence in the US or UK. Such experts warn about the “14 eyes,” a creepy name for a group of countries that share intelligence info, particularly with the US. IVPN is based in Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory. We don’t think that makes you any worse off than a company based in Switzerland, Sweden, or anywhere else—government surveillance efforts around the world are so complicated and clandestine that few people have the commitment, skills, or technology to avoid it completely. But because Gibraltar’s status has been a topic of debate in other deep dives on VPNs, we’d be remiss if we didn’t mention it.
We wouldn’t want you to have to put up with any of that, so we tested over 100 free VPNs to see which ones are the best of the best. We’re happy to say we found several that meet our strict security standards. Are they the perfect solution? Definitely not, but if you’re looking for a free VPN that can get the job done, you should be able to find one here that can suit your needs.
Even though Tor is free, we don’t think it’s the best option for most people. If you aren’t familiar with Tor, this handy interactive graphic shows how it protects an Internet connection, and this series goes into more detail about how Tor works. Runa Sandvik, a former researcher with The Tor Project who is now part of the information security team at The New York Times (parent company of Wirecutter), described it as “a tool that allows users to remain anonymous and uncensored.” When we asked expert Alec Muffett about whether he personally used a VPN, he told us he actually spent most of his work time using Tor. But Tor has a reputation for slow connections, can be blocked by some websites, and isn’t suitable for some peer-to-peer applications like BitTorrent.
Here's the problem with the internet: It's inherently insecure. When the internet was first designed, the priority was to be able to send packets (chunks of data) as reliably as possible. Networking across the country and the world was relatively new, and nodes often went down. Most of the internet's core protocols (methods of communicating) were designed to route around failure, rather than secure data.
Cost: There's a 3 day free trial you can grab but you'll still need to enter your credit card. Otherwise, you can pay for VyprVPN every month for $9.95/month (or buy a year at once to bring that down to $5/month). Additional, there's a Premium plan for $12.95/month (or $6.67/month when billed annually) that lets you use your account on up to five devices at once, plus it supports Chameleon.
What's even scarier is the news that Hola, in certain instances, sells its users' bandwidth through a sister company. What that means, the safety experts say, is that if you're using Hola, your computer—working as an endpoint connection for other Hola users—could even be sold to shady characters for questionable or even illegal purposes as they try to stay anonymous on the Internet.
Ivacy is a Singapore-based VPN service. It is on the lower end of the spectrum in terms of the speeds it offers. Nonetheless, it has strong security mechanisms such as DNS leak protection and AES 256 bit encryption. Its servers are located in more than 100 countries in the world. Find a comprehensive review about Ivacy VPN for pros and cons of the service.
As we said above, there are plenty of drawbacks to free VPN services. If you need a full, trustworthy service with unlimited bandwidth you're going to need to sign up to a full, paid service. The best VPN right now is ExpressVPN. Prices start at just $6.67 per month - that's about the price of a pint of beer in the UK! And for that you get the best VPN in the world, without any security concerns, with 24/7 customer support, guaranteed access to Netflix US, almost constant uptime and a 30-day money back guarantee (no questions asked) if you change your mind. Check out ExpressVPN!
A VPN is created by establishing a virtual point-to-point connection through the use of dedicated connections, virtual tunneling protocols, or traffic encryption. A VPN available from the public Internet can provide some of the benefits of a wide area network (WAN). From a user perspective, the resources available within the private network can be accessed remotely.[2]
Jurisdiction – Perhaps the biggest downside of IPVanish is its jurisdiction. Government agencies in the US are known for their habit of surveillance and intruding the privacy of citizens. With agencies like the FBI and NSA, I wouldn’t really blame a US citizen for going paranoid about his online privacy. IPVanish, unfortunately, gets no points as far as its jurisdiction is concerned.
Unlike the separate tunnels created for each voluntary client, multiple dial-up clients can share a tunnel between the FEP and the tunnel server. When a second client dials into the access server (FEP) to reach a destination for which a tunnel already exists, there is no need to create a new instance of the tunnel between the FEP and tunnel server. Instead, the data traffic for the new client is carried over the existing tunnel. Since there can be multiple clients in a single tunnel, the tunnel is not terminated until the last user of the tunnel disconnects.
VPN servers work by routing traffic through a series of external servers before they reach the server, and a traffic flow from one server to another is called a “hop.” To maximize the connection speed, you want the least hops possible. If you do not have a specific reason to connect through another country, your best course of action should connect to the server closest to your current location. For many, it means choosing your country home (and closest to the city,) if you are in a country with multiple VPN servers available. For others, i.e. selecting the country closest to your own.
Multi-hop cascades + NeuroRouting – Perfect Privacy’s apps give you the ability to create multi-hop VPN cascades across up to four different servers in the network. This protects you against the possibility of a rogue data center logging traffic, targeted monitoring, and other threat scenarios. Additionally, the NeuroRouting feature takes this concept further by dynamically routing all traffic through multiple hops in the server network, corresponding to the location of the site you’re visiting. (No other VPN offers this.)
Express VPN is certainly one of the best VPN services companies that can be found in the market. It is considered as one of the most powerful providers regarding encryption and concealment of IP addresses. This has been proven since it has passed the test of Great Chinese Firewall, one of the most demanding tests and that most suppliers do not exceed. ExpressVPN.com has servers in more than 100 cities in 78 countries on all continents.
Whether you’re you’re sick of your ISP throttling your connection, you want to secure your browsing sessions while on the road, or you just want to download whatever the heck you want without the man on your back, there’s no substitution for a securely deployed Virtual Private Network. Now that you’re armed with the knowledge necessary to pick a good VPN (and with three solid recommendations at that), it’s time to secure your internet traffic once and for all.
While VPNs are an important tool, they are far from foolproof. Let’s say you live in an oppressive country and want to evade censorship in order to access the unrestricted web. A VPN would have limited use. If you’re trying to evade government restrictions and access sites like Facebook and Twitter, a VPN might be useful. Even then, you’d have to be somewhat dependent on the government’s willingness to look the other way.
Mac users often told that they don’t need antivirus software because Mac is not prone to viruses; get a life man! This is not true at all, even the first well-known virus; Elk Cloner, affected Apple computers, not MS-DOS computers. Currently, the state of Mac malware is evolving, with more and more threats targeting the so-called impervious machines. We have already witnessed Mac threats appearance recently; on malwarebytes.com a mac user from Miami who had his DNS settings changed and were unable to change them back.
VPN services are entirely legal and legitimate in most countries. It's completely legal to mask your IP address and encrypt your internet traffic. There is nothing about using a VPN that's illegal and VPN services themselves do not and cannot do anything illegal. The only thing that's illegal is if you were to break the law while using a VPN - for instance if you were to infringe on someone's copyright. But that's the action of infringement that's illegal, not the use of the VPN.
Let's talk about what happens when you use a VPN app on your computer or mobile device. Any VPN app will require an existing network connection to be able to connect to the VPN service provider. This means that even if you set your VPN app to automatically launch when your device boots, there will be a period of time when your computer is connected to the internet directly, not through your VPN.
Final Verdict – IPVanish is a decent VPN service with one of the most appealing user-interfaces. It is fast, both in connecting to servers and during actual Internet activity. It uses the modern AES 256 bit encryption and provides up to 10 multiple logins. However, it does not work with Netflix and is not a recommended VPN for torrenting. For everything else, it is a great VPN service. You can get a detailed view in our IPVanish review.
Prices – PIA offers monthly, yearly, and two-year subscription plans. The two-year plan is the cheapest at $2.91/month. PIA is a personal favorite VPN of mine that falls in the cheap category because it is easy to trust this VPN. It does not make any exaggerated claims: everything about the VPN is transparent. Its reliance on physical servers only (which are far more costly than virtual servers) also makes it an appealing choice with its low-priced subscription.
IVPN exceeded our requirements for being trustworthy and transparent. It also offers good performance without sacrificing security, and it's easy to set up and use on nearly any device running Windows, macOS, Android, or iOS. Other VPNs we tested had faster connections at particular server locations or lower prices, but they came up short on essential factors such as transparency about who exactly runs them. If you're ready for a VPN, we think IVPN is worth the price, even considering competitors with cheaper options. If you're not ready to commit, you can try it out with a seven-day money-back guarantee. It's easy and obvious to turn off automatic billing, too.

Express VPN is certainly one of the best VPN services companies that can be found in the market. It is considered as one of the most powerful providers regarding encryption and concealment of IP addresses. This has been proven since it has passed the test of Great Chinese Firewall, one of the most demanding tests and that most suppliers do not exceed. ExpressVPN.com has servers in more than 100 cities in 78 countries on all continents.
Torrenting/P2P Support – IPVanish makes all torrent websites and clients accessible. There is no problem with IPVanish as far as support for P2P networking is considered. However, the fact that IPVanish is based in the US and subject to its laws makes it a poor choice if your main purpose of having a VPN is to download torrents. This is because companies have no power against agencies and if they are trying to monitor a specific user, the company would probably have no choice but to comply and leak user data. In short, do not use IPVanish for torrenting to ensure your safety.
A traditional VPN can affect the user experience when applied to wireless devices. It's best to use a mobile VPN to avoid slower speeds and data loss. A mobile VPN offers you a high level of security for the challenges of wireless communication. It can provide mobile devices with secure access to network resources and software applications on their wireless networks. It's good to use when you're facing coverage gaps, inter-network roaming, bandwidth issues, or limited battery life, memory or processing power.
VPN services can also be defined as connections between specific computers, typically servers in separate data centers, when security requirements for their exchanges exceed what the enterprise network can deliver. Increasingly, enterprises also use VPN connections in either remote access mode or site-to-site mode to connect -- or connect to -- resources in a public infrastructure-as-a-service environment.

IVPN doesn’t have as many server locations as larger services like ExpressVPN do. When we initially recommended the service, IVPN was limited to 13 countries, compared with ExpressVPN’s 94. But in the months since, IVPN has doubled that to 26, including two additional locations in Asia (Tokyo and Singapore). We’ve yet to test the new servers though, and in the past, IVPN’s single location in Asia—Hong Kong—was slower than competitors.


As the size of the link state database increases, memory requirements and route computation times increase. To address this scaling problem, OSPF divides the network into areas (collections of contiguous networks) that are connected to each other through a backbone area. Each router only keeps a link state database for those areas that are connected to the router. Area border routers (ABRs) connect the backbone area to other areas.
ExpressVPN sets the bar when it comes to download speed. It’s always near the top of the rankings, albeit never at the peak. Consistency is a defining factor of Express; volatility is rarely an issue that affects the outcome of test results. Connections drop a little more often than we’d like them to, but the company has done a remarkable job considering the size of the network it manages.
That said, there are many other ways to track movements across the web. There may be, for example, a tracker inside an ad on website A and another tracker from the same company on website B. By correlating data from both of those trackers, it's possible to assemble a picture of an individual's browsing history. Installing a tracker blocker such as TrackOFF or Privacy Badger from the EFF is a good idea. Fortunately, many VPNs also say they block ads and trackers on the network level.
Privacy features – The privacy features you want/need really varies for each person and depends on your threat model. For a higher level of online anonymity, you could use a multi-hop VPN, or possibly chain different VPN providers together. This could be done by using one VPN on a router, and then connecting through a second VPN on your computer. This can also be accomplished using virtual machines.
Since VPNs route your traffic through another network, you can also make it appear as if it’s coming from another location. That means if you’re in Sydney, Australia, you can make your traffic appear to come from New York City. This is useful for certain sites that block content based on your location (like Netflix). It also allows some people (we’re looking at you, Australians) have to deal with insanely high import taxes on software that see them paying twice (or more) what US consumers pay for the same products.
The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol is used to provide centralized administration of authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) and an industry-standard security infrastructure. RADIUS is defined in RFCs 2138 and 2139 in the IETF RFC Database. RADIUS enables administrators to manage a set of authorization policies, accumulate accounting information, and access an account database from a central location.
In addition, in a spoke and hub frame relay topology, the frame relay interface for the hub router must have a router priority set to 1 or greater and the frame relay interfaces for the spoke routers must have a router priority set to 0. Otherwise, the hub router, which is the only router that can communicate with all of the spoke routers, cannot become the designated router and adjacencies cannot form across the frame relay network.
We use the most trusted and widely used VPN protocol available, OpenVPN for your Windows device. This protocol is open source which means you have the reassurance that no unknown proprietary codes can access your data. And to boot we use OpenSSL libraries and run the whole operation over UDP ports so you always get the best speeds when using our free VPN trial. Our VPN protection for Android is built on OpenVPN, the most widely used and trusted VPN protocol available. It’s the most trusted protocol because it’s open source meaning no unknown proprietary codes can do anything with your data. We also use OpenSSL libraries as well as running the whole thing over UDP ports. The result? The best speeds possible for you when using our free VPN trial. Our VPN protection for Android is built on OpenVPN, the most widely used and trusted VPN protocol available. It’s the most trusted protocol because it’s open source meaning no unknown proprietary codes can do anything with your data. We also use OpenSSL libraries as well as running the whole thing over UDP ports. The result? The best speeds possible for you when using our free VPN trial. We use the IPsec protocol for our iOS implementation which is built entirely on Apple’s proprietary stacks. The result? A super fast connection speed each time you switch on your AVG Secure VPN for iPhone. Our macOS implementation of AVG Secure VPN uses the IPsec protocol and is built entirely on Apple’s proprietary stacks. Which means that you get the best in performance and compatibility for your Mac when you connect using our free VPN trial.
Prices – ProtonVPN offers a free version with unlimited bandwidth. This makes it one of the few free VPN services with unlimited bandwidth. Its paid versions are categorized as Basic, Plus, and Visionary, each of which progressively offers more advanced features than the one before it. The basic version costs $4/month, while the Plus and Visionary plans cost $8/month and $24/month respectively. Yep, it is quite expensive.

Hotspot Shield VPN works in most countries, but that doesn’t mean it’s always legal to use a VPN in a specific country. If you have any doubts about the legality of using a VPN in a certain country, always consult a qualified lawyer because laws can change quickly. If you’re still unsure, then it’s best to play it safe and abide by the most conservative guidelines of a country.
Compatibility – ExpressVPN is compatible with a wide range of devices and operating system. This includes Windows, OS X, Linux, and Chrome OS. In mobile phones and tablets, it is compatible with Android, iOS, Amazon Kindle Fire. It is also compatible with gaming and streaming consoles such as Amazon Fire TV, Chromecast, Apple TV, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, Xbox, Xbox One, and Roku. In short, I don’t think there is any other VPN provider that has such a wide cross-compatibility with different platforms.
Since we're living in a connected world, security and privacy are critical to ensure our personal safety from nefarious hacks. From online banking to communicating with coworkers on a daily basis, we're now frequently transferring data on our computers and smartphones. It's extremely important to find ways of securing our digital life and for this reason, VPNs have become increasingly common.
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